Bedlam Bed Bug Spray
One of the more popular commercial products that you can buy on your own to deal with bed bugs without needing to go through an exterminator is one called "Bedlam." It comes in an aerosol spray can, and can be used all around the bed and in the various cracks and crevices that they hide in. It is designed not to stain, so that you can use it around the mattress itself and on garments (although I would test it first in a small, out of the way spot - there's always a risk). After you spray it, it is still effective for about a week.
Bedlam uses a chemical called a pyrethrin, specifically one called Sumethrin. It kills adult bed bugs on contact. It has also been shown to be very effective against eggs, preventing about 90% of them from hatching. A pyrethrin is a chemical that has been frequently used for killing off fleas and lice, and is also effective against basically any kind of insect. It damages their nervous system, killing them by preventing their nerves from sending signals properly. You should avoid getting the spray directly on people or animals - similar chemicals have required warning labels in flea products because of things like hair loss in pets, so while spraying it around isn't a big problem, you don't want it on you.
This can be a good product, but I don't know if it's a good idea to rely solely on it for getting rid of an infestation. It will certainly cut down on the number of bugs biting you - the problem is that even with 90+% effectiveness, there are still a few that survive and keep the cycle going.
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